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TNT steht als Abkürzung für: Trinitrotoluol, ein Sprengstoff; Tunneling nanotubes, dünne Membrankanäle mit einem Durchmesser im Nanometerbereich bei. Hier können Sie Preise und Laufzeiten Ihrer Sendungen prüfen. Registrieren Sie sich für myTNT oder buchen hier direkt online Ihre Sendung. TNT Express ist ein niederländischer KEP-Dienstleister und Tochter von FedEx. Das Unternehmen mit Sitz in Hoofddorp in den Niederlanden beschäftigt.
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Definition of TNT. History and Etymology for TNT t ri n itro t oluene. Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about TNT.
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This reaction is highly exothermic and carries with it the risk of a runaway reaction leading to an explosion.
In the laboratory, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is produced by a two-step process. A nitrating mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids is used to nitrate toluene to a mixture of mono- and di-nitrotoluene isomers, with careful cooling to maintain temperature.
The nitrated toluenes are then separated, washed with dilute sodium bicarbonate to remove oxides of nitrogen, and then carefully nitrated with a mixture of fuming nitric acid and sulfuric acid.
TNT is one of the most commonly used explosives for military, industrial, and mining applications. TNT has been used in conjunction with hydraulic fracturing , a process used to recover oil and gas from shale formations.
The technique involves displacing and detonating nitroglycerin in hydraulically induced fractures followed by wellbore shots using pelletized TNT.
TNT is valued partly because of its insensitivity to shock and friction, with reduced risk of accidental detonation compared to more sensitive explosives such as nitroglycerin.
TNT neither absorbs nor dissolves in water, which allows it to be used effectively in wet environments.
To detonate, TNT must be triggered by a pressure wave from a starter explosive, called an explosive booster. Although blocks of TNT are available in various sizes e.
Examples of explosive blends containing TNT include:. Upon detonation , TNT undergoes a decomposition equivalent to the reaction.
Because TNT has an excess of carbon, explosive mixtures with oxygen-rich compounds can yield more energy per kilogram than TNT alone.
During the 20th century, amatol , a mixture of TNT with ammonium nitrate was a widely used military explosive. TNT can be detonated with a high velocity initiator or by efficient concussion.
TNT had a rating of exactly on the "F of I" scale. The reference has since been changed to a more sensitive explosive called RDX , which has an F of I rating of The heat of combustion however is For comparison, gunpowder contains 3 megajoules per kilogram, dynamite contains 7.
Various methods can be used to detect TNT, including optical and electrochemical sensors and explosive-sniffing dogs. TNT is poisonous, and skin contact can cause skin irritation, causing the skin to turn a bright yellow-orange color.
During the First World War , munition workers who handled the chemical found that their skin turned bright yellow, which resulted in their acquiring the nickname " canary girls " or simply "canaries.
People exposed to TNT over a prolonged period tend to experience anemia and abnormal liver functions. Blood and liver effects, spleen enlargement and other harmful effects on the immune system have also been found in animals that ingested or breathed trinitrotoluene.
There is evidence that TNT adversely affects male fertility. Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface and subsurface waters may be colored pink because of the presence of TNT.
Such contamination, called " pink water ", may be difficult and expensive to remedy. TNT is prone to exudation of dinitrotoluenes and other isomers of trinitrotoluene.
Even small quantities of such impurities can cause such effect. The effect shows especially in projectiles containing TNT and stored at higher temperatures, e.
Exudation of impurities leads to formation of pores and cracks which in turn cause increased shock sensitivity.
Migration of the exudated liquid into the fuze screw thread can form fire channels , increasing the risk of accidental detonations; fuze malfunction can result from the liquids migrating into its mechanism.
Pink water and red water are two distinct types of wastewater associated with trinitrotoluene TNT. Red water also known as "Sellite water" is produced during the process used to purify the crude TNT.
It has a complex composition containing more than a dozen aromatic compounds, but the principal components are inorganic salts sodium sulfite , sulfate , nitrite and nitrate and sulfonated nitroaromatics.
Pink water is actually colorless at the time of generation, whereas red water can be colorless or a very pale red. The color is produced by photolytic reactions under the influence of sunlight.
Despite the names, red and pink water are not necessarily different shades; the colour depends mainly on duration of solar exposure. If exposed long enough, "pink" water will become dark brown.
Because of the toxicity of TNT, discharge of pink water to the environment has been prohibited in the USA and many other countries for decades, but ground contamination may exist in very old plants.
Red water is significantly more toxic. As such it has always been considered a hazardous waste.
It has traditionally been disposed of by evaporation to dryness as the toxic components are not volatile , followed by incineration.
Much research has been conducted to develop better disposal processes. Because of its use in construction and demolition, TNT has become the most widely used explosive, and thus its toxicity is the most characterized and reported.
Residual TNT from manufacture, storage, and use can pollute water, soil, atmosphere , and biosphere. In Sept. Dissolution is a measure of the rate that solid TNT in contact with water is dissolved.
The relatively low aqueous solubility of TNT causes the dissolution of solid particles to be continuously released to the environment over extended periods of time.
However, when salinity was altered, TNT dissolved at the same speed Figure 2. Adsorption is a measure of the distribution between soluble and sediment adsorbed contaminants following attainment of equilibrium.
TNT and its transformation products are known to adsorb to surface soils and sediments, where they undergo reactive transformation or remained stored.
Materials that associate strongly with soils move slowly through soil. Materials that associate strongly with water move through water with rates approaching that of ground water movement.
The association constant for TNT with a soil is 2. The number of functional groups on TNT influences the ability to adsorb into soil.
Adsorption coefficient values have been shown to increase with an increase in the number of amino groups.
Therefore, when considering the adsorption of TNT, the type of soil or sediment and the ionic composition and strength of the ground water are important factors.
The association constants for TNT and its degradation products with clays have been determined. Clay minerals have a significant effect on the adsorption of energetic compounds.
Soil properties, such as organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity had significant impacts of the adsorption coefficients reported in the table below.
Additional studies have shown that the mobility of TNT degradation products is likely to be lower "than TNT in subsurface environments where specific adsorption to clay minerals dominates the sorption process.
Compared to other explosives, TNT has a higher association constant with soil, meaning it adheres more with soil than with water. TNT is a reactive molecule and is particularly prone to react with reduced components of sediments or photodegradation in the presence of sunlight.
TNT is thermodynamically and kinetically capable of reacting with a wide number of components of many environmental systems.
Soils with high clay contents or small particle sizes and high total organic carbon content have been shown to promote TNT transformation.
Possible TNT transformations include reduction of one, two, or three nitro-moieties to amines and coupling of amino transformation products to form dimers.
Formation of the two monoamino transformation products, 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT are energetically favored, and therefore are observed in contaminated soils and ground water.
The diamino products are energetically less favorable, and even less likely are the triamino products. The transformation of TNT is significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions as well as under highly reducing conditions.
TNT transformations in soils can occur both biologically and abiotically. Photolysis is a major process that impacts the transformation of energetic compounds.
The alteration of a molecule in photolysis occurs in the presence of direct absorption of light energy by the transfer of energy from a photosensitized compound.
Phototransformation of TNT "results in the formation of nitrobenzenes , benzaldehydes , azodicarboxylic acids, and nitrophenols , as a result of the oxidation of methyl groups , reduction of nitro groups , and dimer formation.
Evidence of the photolysis of TNT has been seen due to the color change to pink of the wastewaters when exposed to sunlight.
Photolysis was more rapid in river water than in distilled water. Ultimately, photolysis affects the fate of TNT primarily in the aquatic environment but could also affect the reaction when exposed to sunlight on the soil surface.
The ligninolytic physiological phase and manganese peroxidase system of fungi can cause a very limited amount of mineralization of TNT in a liquid culture; though not in soil.
An organism capable of the remediation of large amounts of TNT in soil has yet to be discovered. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Trinitrotoluene. For other uses, see TNT disambiguation.